KULLANILMAYAN GİYSİLERİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİNDE ÇALIŞAN KADINLARIN EKOLOJİK YAKLAŞIMLARI
ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES OF LABOURING WOMEN ON RECYCLE OF UNUSED CLOTHES
Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi
Giyim, Kullanılmış giysi, Ekolojik yaklaşım, Atık, Geri dönüşüm
Çalışan kadınların sosyal yapıdaki aktiviteleri, kültürel birikimleri, estetik anlayışları ve çalışma hayatı ile toplumda bir sosyal mevki edinme çabaları içinde, giyim tarzları büyük önem taşımaktadır. Buna paralel olarak giysi çeşidinin çoğalması çalışan kadınların giysi kullanım süresini azalmakta ve her yıl gardıroplarda bekleyen ve farklı şekillerde elden çıkarılan giysilerin bir kısmı çöpe atılmaktadır. Bu durumun çevresel sorunlara ve ekonomik kayıplara yol açtığı düşüncesinin çıkış noktasını oluşturduğu bu çalışmada, çalışan kadınların kullanım sonrası giysilerini değerlendirmede ekolojik yaklaşımlarını ve kullanmadıkları giysilerini nasıl değerlendirdiklerini belirlemek amacıyla, 505 çalışan kadının konu ile ilgili görüşleri alınmıştır. Elde edilen veriler SPSS programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; çalışan kadınların çoğunlukla ihtiyaçları olduğu zaman ve sezon sonlarında giysi alışverişi yaptıkları, giymedikleri giysilerini giyebilecek kişilere vererek değerlendirdikleri, atık değerlendirme ve geri dönüşüm (recyling) gibi ekolojik yaklaşımlar konusunda yeterince bilgiye sahip olmadıkları ve organizasyonel bir destek alamadıkları tespit edilmiştir.
The dressing need of human, arising from protection against natural conditions and covering the body, has reached a very important position in the ordinary daily life. Influence of this position on human may widely vary. While need of dressing is due to protecting ordinary temperature of the body against the climatic conditions, aesthetic properties of dressing are more important particularly on the side of women. In addition to reflecting personal characteristics of people, clothes are also determinative for status and they are characterized as a vital need, of which women care about selection and they mostly need support for selecting a particular cloth. Emphasize on wearing and toilette by women due to their very nature, sorted colors, styles and models of clothes lead to more comprehensive cloth preferences by women in comparison with men. When women started to more commonly involve working life, wearing styles also started to gain importance with regards the working environment and their working positions(Koca and Koç, 2008; 172). Form and style of clothes are very important for women with regards the social activities, cultural background, aesthetic approach and attempts towards gaining a social position in the society via her working life. This importance causes divergence of clothes and accordingly, reduction in time of actively wearing a particular cloth. When type and forms of clothes are increased, a part of clothes left to the wardrobe and somehow disposed is led to garbage dump and it leads to visual, economical and environmental problems. Advanced technology is associated with environmental pollution. An aware public opinion develop particularly in developed countries considering decreased thickness of ozone layer, reduced green areas and heavier air and water pollution. It is started to think about new measures for both sustaining industrialization and protecting the environment. Studies indicated that costs arising from cleaning after pollution occurs are higher than costs for taking measures before pollution occurs and that it is not possible to completely restore the contaminated ecological balance. It is known that textile products have a large share among wastes causing ecological imbalance. Therefore, the environmental action, which originates from U.S. and extended to whole within last 2 decades, also influenced the textile industry. As a consequence, textile ecology emerged. Eco-Textile refers products which can be manufactured and used without damages on human and environmental health and briefly, does not adversely influence ecological balance (Kurtoğlu and Şenol, 2004: 26). Getting more widespread due to globalization, the fashion trends gained a position directly influencing aesthetic tastes and wearing style with support of the media. Intense use of communication devices, recently, started to influence worlds fashion, societies and human in a similar manner. Therefore, in addition to the increased wearing consumption, the inadequacy in recycling old clothes combined concepts of textile and ecology. When this issue is examined from a wide perspective, feeling of employed women towards more care about wearing styles due to their positions and towards following fashion trends caused an increase in wearing styles and thus reduction in economic life of clothes. Thus, there is an accumulation in number of clothes unused and left to the wardrobe, and a substantial amount of clothes is directed to garbage dumps in our society lacking awareness on efficient cloth evaluation approach such as recycling and donation. This fact not only caused tremendous economic losses, but also it may damage ecological balance. Recently, as efforts are made by non-governmental organizations and environmentalist organizations for increasing awareness of society and the concept of global warming is in the agenda, particularly young generation tended ecological cloths, but it is known that these efforts are inadequate and the whole society should be more responsible on the issue of re-use of old clothes. As particularly working women are intensely subject to social pleasure and like, wearing alternatives are included in a wide scale and this leads working women purchase more clothes. In this study which was conducted in the light of above mentioned condition leads to environmental problems and economic losses, in order to determine ecological approaches of working women towards reuse of unused clothes and how they reuse their unused clothes, views of 505 working women on this issue were obtained. When this study is considered in terms of time and methodology, it is characterized as descriptive, and if it is examined in terms of source of data and data collection tool, it is characterized as survey and moreover, population of this study comprises women working at public institutions and organizations as well as private sector. Sample group is comprised of 505 women working at public and private institutions (school, healthcare center etc) in city center, districts and villages of Ankara, Çorum and Samsun. Data used in this study is collected using a data collection tool which was developed by investigator and contains 3 sections and 22 questions. Similar studies and relevant literature were referenced when the tool was developed. In the first section of data collection tool, ten questions on demographics of working women are present, and 8 questions on apparel-buying behaviors of working women are included in the second section, while third section contains tripartite Likert scale consisting of 4 questions on cloth recycling methods of working women. The resultant data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 15.00). Percent and frequency distributions of data were obtained and reason and frequency of shopping by working women, their views and practices on recycling unused garments were tabulated and presented. In order determine whether there is statistically significant relation between education, marital status and residence site of sample group and recycling methods of unused garments is present, Chi-square test was employed and data was analyzed at significance level of p< .05. According to results of the study, it was determined that 39.9 % of working women in the age group of 20-25 years were high school graduates, while it is found that 55.6 % of married working women and 47.6 % of single working women were residing in Çorum. It was revealed that most working women bought apparel when garments of new season were released, while a substantial part of them did not continuously keep pace with fashion, and it was also found that they bought new garments as they do like to wear new apparel. It was found that working women usually make apparel shopping when they need or at the end of season, they wear new clothes in combination with old garments. In terms of recycling/reuse, most working women prefer to give unused garments to other people who may wear them. It was concluded that a substantial part of working women is aware of the damage on state economy arising from disposing unused garments (economical perspective) and unused garments can be put into use by providing them to people who may need unused garments. It was determined that working women did not sell unused clothes in the form of second-hand garment, they withheld unused garments based on the view they might be worn in the future, they did not have adequate knowledge on ecological approaches such as waste management and recycling and they did not get organizational support. Psychological effect of fashion on human is revealed out by many investigations. A significant part of working women is now shopping garments for psychological satisfaction. This approach has serious damages on environment and economy. Working women should be provided training on increasing ecological awareness and reuse/recycling of unused clothes, and working women should be made aware via media and particularly TV shows. Unused garments should be recycled using various technologies in a manner avoiding environmental hazards. The whole society, particularly women, should be made aware of recovery and reuse/recycling technologies in order to prevent mentioned damages. It is concluded that not only non-governmental organizations should emphasize this issue, but also the government should develop a strategy plan in order to increase awareness of the society.